Food stuff/ food productInstructionsDetails
FishPike to be avoided completely during pregnancy and breastfeeding.High mercury levels in pike caught in inland waters or sea, and in predatory fish caught in inland waters.
Raw fish, fish in va- cuum or modified atmosphere packa- ges, and salt cured fish or cold-smoked at home as well as roe and food contai- ning roe, such as patés and sushiRaw fish and salt cured or cold smoked fish, either packed or made at home may only be eaten after heating (internal tem- perature of the product at least 70oC all over). Sushi and roe and foods containing raw fish to be avoided.Risk of Listeria monocytogenes bac- teria. Food poisoning which during pregnancy carries a risk of miscarriage.
Liver, liver foods Liver sausage and liver patéLiver foods (whole and ground liver steaks, liver with gravy, liver casserole) to be avoided during the whole pregnancy.Consumption of liver sausage and liver paté may not exceed 200 g per week or 100 g at one meal. If liver sausage or paté is used daily, consumption should not exceed 30 g (= 2 Tbsp. = 2 slices) per day.Excessive intake of vitamin A during pregnancy may increase the risk of mal- formations and miscarriage. striction+on+the+use+of+foodstuffs/ consumption+of+liver+and+liver- based+foods/Evira’s risk assessment report, 2007: productId=84
Raw meat, raw ground meat and steak tartare.In addition to aforementioned, also raw cut meat (steak), non- perishable sausages (salami, mettwurst) and air-dried hamMeat must be appropriately cooked. Pork, all ground meat foods, such as hamburger patties and meat balls as well as meatloaf, are always served cooked through.Same utensils must not be used with uncooked and cooked products. All meat products that have not been heated at any point shall be avoided. Cut meats (steaks, roast) shall also be cooked through.Infection risk caused by EHEC bacteria with raw beef, lamb and mutton. Salmonella risk particularly with imported meat, and infection risk caused by Yersinia bacteria with pork.Risk of toxoplasmosis particularly for pregnant women.
Raw milk and unpasteurised milkonly after heating.Risk of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, listeria, EHEC, Salmonella and campylobacter.
Cheese made from unpasteurised milk and soft cheese made from pasteurised milkNot recommended unheated. Listeria bacteria are destroyed when hea- ted to a temperature of more than 70oC, but not by freezing or salting. All cheeses can be used provided they are heated until they bubble.Risk of Listeria monocytogenes bac- teria. Food poisoning which during pregnancy carries a risk of miscarriage.
Frozen vegetables and processed foods (commercial)All frozen vegetables must be heated befo- re use (for salads, brought to boil and coo- led before use). Cooled, processed foods designed to be reheated (e.g. casserole) to be heated to boil before consumption.Risk of infection by Listeria bacteria. Food poisoning which during pregnancy carries a risk of miscarriage.
Green, sprouted or damaged potatoesNot to be usedHigh solanine levels (natural toxin)
Raw tomatoes (undeveloped/unriped)Not to be usedHigh tomatine levels (natural toxin)
Raw beetrootTo be properly cooked. Raw beetroot is not to be used.Risk of food poisoning
MushroomsFalse morel (Gyro- mitra esculenta)Not to be usedResidues of the toxin gyromitrin despite processing.
Coffee and other caffeine-containing beveragesThe safe daily caffeine intake limit from all sourc- es and in single doses is – 200 mg for pregnant and breastfeeding women – less than 3 mg/kilogram of body weight for chil- dren and adolescents (3–18 yr) 200 mg of caffeine is obtained from about 3 dl (= about two cups) of regular brewed coffee or 1.5 dl of espresso. About 1 litre of black tea contains an equal amount of caffeine. The caffeine con- tent of cocoa is 3–5 mg/dl. Beverages that con- tain caffeine can be consumed on a random ba- sis, but the limits specified for daily consumption and single doses should be taken into account, and for children also the restrictions based on body weight.Caffeine passes through the placenta to the foetus and through breast milk to the baby. There is not much scientific evidence on the safe intake limits of caffeine for children and adolescents. The safe intake limit has been derived from the values specified for adults.Even small doses of caffeine may cause palpitations, tremor and insomnia to people sensitive to caffeine as well as to pregnant women and children, if consumed before retiring to bed.
Cola beverages containing caffeineCola beverages are only suited for random con- sumption. When the caffeine content of a product is more than 150 mg/l, the labelling of the product shall in- dicate the caffeine content (mg/100 ml) and pre- sent the following warning: ”High caffeine content. Not recommended for children or pregnant or breastfeeding women.” One can (3.3 dl) of a cola beverage contains about 25–60 mg of caffeine and one bottle (5 dl) about 35-90 mg.
Energy drinksNot recommended for pregnant women or children and adolescents under the age of 15 years. When the caffeine content of a product is more than 150 mg/l, the labelling shall present the same warnings as with cola beverages. Evira has further advised that the maximum daily intake of the product is to be indicated in the labelling. A small can (2.5 dl) of energy drink contains about 80 mg and a large can (5 dl) about 160 mg of caffeine.
Products with added caffeine, e.g. sweets, bubble gum and chocolate bars, as well as food supple- mentsThe labelling of food products containing caffeine shall present the following warning: ”Contains caf- feine. Not recommended for children or pregnant women” and an indication of the caffeine content in mg/100 g. The amount of caffeine varies (6–60 mg/serving). For food supplements, the caffeine content of the recommended daily dosage shall be indicated in the labelling. Caffeine is also used as an aroma. Caffeine is in that case indicated in the product’s list of ingredients under aromas.
Herbal teasNot recommendedSafety not known, can contain naturally harmful substances.
Liquorice and salty liquorice sweetsNot recommendedLiquorice and salty liquorice sweets contain glycyrrhizin for which a safe consumption limit is not known. High glycyrrhizin levels increase blood pressure and cause swelling, and may carry a risk of miscarriage and can be linked with developmental disorders of the child. Small doses (e.g. a serving of liquorice ice cream or a few sweets) are not harmful.
Oil plant seeds (e.g. flaxseeds and sunflower seeds)Flaxseeds should not be used as such, ground or soaked during pregnancy and breastfeeding for treatment of constipati- on.Small amounts of flaxseeds in e.g. bread are not harmful.Flax as well as some other oil plants have a natural ability to accumulate heavy metals from the soil, particularly cadmium, in their seeds.
Ginger products and ginger tea, as well as food supplements containing gingerUse is not recommendedContain harmful substances, safe con- sumption limits are not known.
Seaweed productsNot to be used, if iodine content is not known or is high.Excessive iodine intake has adverse effects on thyroid function and foetal growth.
Herbal preparations marketed as food supplementsUse is not recommendedSafe consumption limits are not known. May contain naturally harmful substances.